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The input impendence of eighth wave line terminated in a pure resistance Rr. What is a transmission line resonator or coaxial resonator? If the transmission is not terminated in its characteristic impedance ,then there will be two waves traveling along the line which gives rise to standing waves having fixed maxima and fixed minima. The performance parameters of microwave resonator are: Another possible method of impedance matching is to use two stubs in which the locations of the stub are arbitrary,the two stub lengths furnishing the required adjustments.

This type of distortion is called frequency distortion. Explain about voltage and current waveform of dissipation less line? Explain double stub matching on a transmission line and derive the expression and the length of the stub used for matching on a line?

Its application is to connect load to a source where they cannot be made adjacent. Resonator is a tuned circuit which resonates at a particular frequency at which the energy stored in the electric field is equal to the energy stored in the magnetic field. Define characteristic impedance in a waveguide The characteristic impedance Zo can be defined in terms of the voltage-current ratio or in terms of power transmitted for a given voltage or a given current.

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Ec about physical significance of TL? If the indicator is non linear, corrections must be applied to the readings obtained. Prove ajd the velocity of propagation? The input impedance of open aned short circuited lines are given by, Give the formula to calculate the distance d from the anr minimum to the point stub be connection.

Why are rectangular wave-guides preferred over circular wave-guides? The distortions occurring in the transmission line are called waveform distortion or line distortion. What is a finite line? What is the use of eighth wave line? The anv of a voltage minimum is measured rather than a voltage maximum because it is usually possible to determine the exact point of minimum voltage with greater accuracy. An important application of the quarter wave matching sectionis to a couple a transmission line to a resistive load such as an antenna.

When reflection occurs in a line? What are the difficulties in single stub matching? What is traansmission dominant mode for circular resonator? Define dominant mode for a circular waveguide. A finite line, which is terminated in its characteristic impedance, is termed as infinite line. Derive the expression for attenuation of TM 11 waves in rectangular wave guide?

The value of standing wave ratio is 2. Derive the expression for the resonant frequency of the circular cavity resonator?

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Transmission line resonator can be built using distributed elements like sections of coaxial lines. How the cavity resonator can be represented by a LCR circuit?

What is the dominant mode for the TM waves in the rectangular waveguide? This application makes se of the fact that the input impendence of a quarter.

The dominant mode of a circular resonator depends on the dimensions of the cavity. The possible TM modes in a circular waveguide are: When the line is terminated in its characteristic impedance, the load will absorb some power and some will be reflected back thus producing reflections. Measurements indicate that the standing wave minima are cm apart and that the last minimum is 35 cm from the load end of the line.

Because the TE10 mode has the lowest attenuation of all modes in a rectangular waveguide and its electric field is definitely polarized in one direction everywhere.Unit — III : Network Functions : Concept of Complex frequencyTransform Impedances Network functions of one port and two port networks, concept of poles and zeros, properties of driving point and transfer functions, time response and stability from pole zero plot. Inter-relationships between the parameters, inter-connections of two port networks, Ladder and Lattice networks.

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Computer system architecture-3rd Ed-Morris Mano solution. Q1 What is SMO?

## Electromagnetic Field Theory

Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real nu What is the difference between Swing and AWT components?

Lec 5: Introduction to Waveguides and Rectangular Waveguide

AWT components are heavy-weight, whereas Swing components are lightweight. Total Pageviews. Powered by Blogger. Follow by Email. Translate Page. About Me devsuroor View my complete profile. Electrical machines - EEE branch Transmission line parameters and distributionChapter 2 Waveguides.

In this TM 10 or TM 01 does not exist. Cut of frequency :. Phase constant:. Phase velocity:. Group velocity :. For TE Mode:. For TM mode:. Guided wavelength l g :. Power handling capacity of rectangular waveguide. Resonant frequency:. Login New User. Sign Up. Forgot Password? New User? Continue with Google Continue with Facebook. Gender Male Female. Create Account. Already Have an Account? Full Screen. Waveguide is one conductor transmission line.

Resonant frequency: TE is the dominant mode of cavity resonator.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Transmission lines and Waveguides notes. Ranjit kumar. Neper A neper Symbol: Np is a logarithmic unit of ratio. It is not an SI unit but is accepted for use alongside the SI. It is used to express ratios, such as gain and loss, and relative values.

The name is derived from John Napier, the inventor of logarithms.

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The value of a ratio in nepers, Np, is given by where x1 and x2 are the values of interest, and ln is the natural logarithm. The neper is often used to express ratios of voltage and current amplitudes in electrical circuits or pressure in acousticswhereas the decibel is used to express power ratios.

One kind of ratio may be converted into the other. The voltage level is Like the decibel, the neper is a dimensionless unit.

The ITU recognizes both units. Decibel The decibel dB is a logarithmic unit of measurement that expresses the magnitude of a physical quantity usually power or intensity relative to a specified or implied reference level. Since it expresses a ratio of two quantities with the same unit, it is a dimensionless unit. A decibel is one tenth of a bel, a seldom-used unit. The decibel is widely known as a measure of sound pressure level, but is also used for a wide variety of other measurements in science and engineering particularly acoustics, electronics, and control theory and other disciplines.

It confers a number of advantages, such as the ability to conveniently represent very large or small numbers, a logarithmic scaling that roughly corresponds to the human perception of sound and light, and the ability to carry out multiplication of ratios by simple addition and subtraction. The decibel symbol is often qualified with a suffix, which indicates which reference quantity or frequency weighting function has been used. For a similar unit using natural logarithms to base e, see neper.

The bel B is the logarithm of the ratio of two power quantities ofand for two field quantities in the ratio . A field quantity is a quantity such as voltage, current, sound pressure, electric field strength, velocity and charge density, the square of which in linear systems is proportional to power.

A power quantity is a power or a quantity directly proportional to power, e. The calculation of the ratio in decibels varies depending on whether the quantity being measured is a power quantity or a field quantity. Power quantities When referring to measurements of power or intensity, a ratio can be expressed in decibels by evaluating ten times the base logarithm of the ratio of the measured quantity to the reference level.

Thus, if L represents the ratio of a power value P1 to another power value P0, then LdB represents that ratio expressed in decibels and is calculated using the formula: P1 and P0 must have the same dimension, i.

Since a bel is equal to ten decibels, the corresponding formulae for measurement in bels LB are. Field quantities When referring to measurements of field amplitude it is usual to consider the ratio of the squares of A1 measured amplitude and A0 reference amplitude.

This is because in most applications power is proportional to the square of amplitude, and it is desirable for the two decibel formulations to give the same result in such typical cases. Thus the following definition is used: This formula is sometimes called the 20 log rule, and similarly the formula for ratios of powers is the 10 log rule, and similarly for other factors.

The formula may be rearranged to give Similarly, in electrical circuits, dissipated power is typically proportional to the square of voltage or current when the impedance is held constant. A similar formula holds for current. An example scale showing x and 10 log x. It is easier to grasp and compare 2 or 3 digit numbers than to compare up to 10 digits.

Note that all of these examples yield dimensionless answers in dB because they are relative ratios expressed in decibels. A change in power ratio by a factor of two is approximately a 3 dB change.Transmission Lines and Wave Guides Notes download links are listed below please check it —.

Link:Complete Notes. Link:Unit 1 Notes. Link:Unit 2 Notes. Link:Unit 3 Notes. Link:Unit 4 Notes. Link:Unit 5 Notes. Need for Transmission Lines, Types of Transmission lines, Characterization in terms of primary and secondary constants, Characteristic impedance, General wave equation,Loss less propagation,Propagation, Propagation constant, Wave reflection at discontinuities, Voltage standing wave ratio, Transmission line of finite length. Electro static sensors,Parallel plate capacitor,Inter digit finger capacitance.

Impedance matching: Quarter wave transformer,Impedance matching by stubs, Single stub and double stub matching. Smith chart, Solutions of problems using Smith chart,Single and double stub matching using Smith chart. Filter fundamentals, Design of filters,Band Elimination, m-derived sections,Low pass, high pass composite filters,Characteristics impedance of symmetrical networks, Constant K, Low pass, High pass, Band pass.

Vote count: No votes so far! Be the first to rate this post. Your email address will not be published. Table of Contents. How useful was this post? Click on a star to rate it! Leave this field empty.Image formation and processing group. Resume Publication list Prof. Chew's book Courses offered ECE lecture notes Schedule Former graduate students Former post-doctoral and visiting scholars Image formation and processing group Recent conference presentations Other connections. Chew These notes are in postscript.

You need a postscript viewer to read these lecture notes. If you have a PC, the postscipt viewer called ghostview can be found at get ghostviewer. Interesting movies related to electromagnetic fields available at this web site click here. It may still be useful to ECE students. Elements of Complex Algebra click here 2. Review of Vector Analysis click here 3. Wave Equation from Maxwell's Equations click here 4. Fundamentals of Transmission Lines click here 6. The Smith Chart click here To get a Smith Chart: click here You cannot view this postscript file, but you can send it to a postscript printer to be printed. Here is another Smith chart in the GIF format a not-so-good one click here 8. Examples on Using the Smith Chart click here 9. Complex Power on a Transmission Line click here Impedance Matching on a Transmission Line click here Lossy Transmission Lines click here Transients on a Transmission Line click here Properties of Fields in a Transmission Line click here Group and Phase Velocities click here Real Poynting Theorem click here Complex Poynting Theorem click here Wave Polarization click here 19a.

Representation of a Plane Wave click here TM Case II.

## Waveguides Study Notes for Electronics and Communication Engineering

Cutoff Frequency III. Phase and Group Velocity IV. TE Case click here Hollow Waveguides I. Rectangular Waveguides click here Dielectric Waveguides Slab click here Anisotropic Media click here The Fields of a Hertzian Dipole click here Radiation Field Approximation click here Radiation Field Pattern Plots click here click here Alternatively, you can go to here click here to download the file into your browser by clicking on the file names If you want to visit the old handwritten notes not advisablethey are here click here.Waveguides Single Lines : The term waveguide may refer to any linear structure that conveys electromagnetic waves between its end points.

At frequencies more than 3 GHz losses in the transmission lines and cables become significant due to the losses that occur in the dielectric needed to support the conductor and within the conductor itself. In general, a waveguide consists of a hollow metallic tube of a rectangular or circular shape used to guide an electromagnetic waves by successive reflections from the inner walls of tube.

Types of Waveguide: The waveguides can be classified based on these shapes given below. Rectangular Waveguide: Rectangular waveguide is situated in the rectangular coordinate system with its breadth along x-direction, width along y-direction and z-indicates direction of propagation. Vector Helmholtz equations. TE and TM Modes: The electromagnetic wave inside a waveguide has an infinite number of patterns, called as modes. Generally two types of mode TE and TM are present in the waveguide.

These modes are denoted as TE mn and TM mn. TE mn field equations in rectangular waveguide as. Propagation Constant: The propagation of the wave in the guide is assumed in positive z-direction. Cut-off Wave Number. The cut-off wave number h is defined by. Case 1. Phase Velocity u p :. However, v p represents the velocity with which wave changes its phase in terms of guide wavelength i.

Group Velocity u g : If any modulated signal is transmitted through guide, then modulation envelope travels at slower speed than carrier and of course slower than speed of light. The TM mn mode field equations are. Some of the TM mode, characteristic equations are same as that of TE mode but some are different and they are given as.

Power Loss in a Waveguide: There are two ways of power losses in a waveguide as given below. If the operational frequency is below the cut-off frequency, propagation constant y will have only the attenuation term u, i. So attenuation constant. Also attenuation due to non-magnetic dielectric is given by. TE Modes in Rectangular Waveguide. TE 11 mode. Similarly for TM mode also, different modes represents different cut-off wavelength. Circular Waveguide: A circular waveguide is a tabular circular conductor.

Figure shows circular waveguide of radius a and length z, placed in cylindrical coordinate systems. TE mn modes in circular waveguide. The phase velocity, group velocity and guide wavelength remains same as that of rectangular waveguide. Helmholtz equation in terms of E z in circular guide is.

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The field equation for TM nm modes are given as. Key Points. Power Handling Capacity: For rectangular waveguide: in watt.

### J. Sengupta >>Lecture Notes on Transmission lines and Waveguides

For a loss less dielectric:. Home Electronics Engg. The dominant mode in a particular guide is the mode having the lowest cut-off frequency. Types of Waveguide: The waveguides can be classified based on these shapes given below Rectangular Waveguide: Rectangular waveguide is situated in the rectangular coordinate system with its breadth along x-direction, width along y-direction and z-indicates direction of propagation.

Such modes are called evanescent modes. A plane wave propagating through a circular waveguide results in TE and TM modes.